IPFS (the InterPlanetary File System) is a standard that enables decentralized file storage and retrieval using content-based identifiers.
Instead of using an HTTP URL like
http://example.com/helloworld, it uses the IPFS scheme, such as
IPFS identifies things based on their unique content hash (the long, seemingly random string) using a thing called a Merkle DAG (this great article explains it nicely).
This is called a CID, or Content ID.
This simple idea (plus some not so simple network protocols) allows for decentralized, temper-proof storage of data.
This fixes some issues with HTTP that are related to its centralized philosophy: no more 404s!
Atomic Data is highly dependent on the availability of Resources, especially Properties and Datatypes. These resources are meant to be re-used a lot, and that would make everything expensive.
They are static, their contents can never change. This is great for some types of data, but horrible for others. If you're describing a time-dependent thing (such as a person's job), If you're describing personal, private information, its also a bad idea to use IPFS, because it's designed to be permanent. Also, IPFS is not as fast as HTTP - at least for now.
Here's an example, serialized to Atomic-NDJSON:
IPLD (not IPFS) stands for InterPlanetary Linked Data, but is not related to RDF. The scope seems fundamentally different from RDF, too, but I have to read more about this. TODO!